By Guillermo Narvaez – Technical Director of the Kreston International Global Tax Group
Digital Services Taxes (DSTs) are a new global initiative designed to charge larger technology companies that provide digital platforms such as social media, advertising, online marketplaces and other search engine tools for commercial transactions or selling user data online advertising. It is beginning to apply across the world at the behest of the G20 – the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) who are calling for changes to the international tax system to address the challenges of the digitisation of the economy by mid-2021.
A simple enough idea – impose additional tax costs on those who earn more – but is it really this simple? Who actually pays this tax, as on the face of it, it is the customers themselves who face liability rather than the platforms on which they are advertising.
Online platforms essential for SMEs to grow
Big tech companies like Amazon, Google and Apple shift the tax burden instigated by DSTs downstream to their customers, many of whom are SMEs. The European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE) has stated that “the EU’s commercial landscape is characterised by an overall share of highly diverse SMEs who account for 99.8% of all EU enterprises and 66.6% of overall EU employment.”
Copenhagen Economics also point out that 82% of SMEs in Europe use search engines to promote products and services online, while 42% of SMEs use online marketplaces to sell their products and services.
So we can see that SMEs are disproportionately affected by DSTs and are the ones left with the bill.
But in reality, to what extent are DSTs targeting the big fish? The DSTs’ purpose is well-meaning – challenge some of the world’s largest multinational enterprises (MNEs) to pay their dues.
However, when these enterprises can just pass this on to others – particularly digitally dependent SMEs who cannot otherwise achieve their goals – the DST is surely not having its desired effect?
Not looking at the profitability of the platforms means that the DST may end up being a disproportionate levy and, as a result, drive a possible deceleration of economic growth.
SMEs are inadvertent “victims” of the new tax levy
So what is the thinking behind this new levy? Many SMEs exist either in the middle of the digital services supply chain or to ensure the delivery of a product or service to its final customer. Where tech companies at one end of the chain and final customers at the other, SMEs sit between the two, paying for services (such as advertising) provided by the tech companies.
The logic of the DST is, in part, that tax on profitability (such as income tax) do not have the reach to impose tax burdens on tech companies for digital services. However, tech companies can circumvent the economic burden of the DST by transferring the levy to their customers, as they currently do with SMEs.
Conversely, whilst tech companies can pass on the levy to SMEs by increasing the cost of their services and so cover their tax liability, SMEs cannot similarly shift the burden downstream to their customers, as doing so may well take away their competitive advantage.
A well-meaning but flawed tax concept
Finally, even though consumers successfully use one or more digital service, they do not usually have to pay anything at all. Most of these can access any information, products and services through the use of free online services.
While SMEs serve a vital purpose in domestic economies, they are often the primary victims of this tax burden, whereas tech companies escape cost-free. Hence this system of taxation is a flawed one and deeply unfair.
SMEs are part of the digital services supply chain and a vital element of any country seeking to pursue economic growth while achieving a healthy economy. Since over 99% of EU businesses are SMEs, surely it would be fairer to support their development, rather than leave them to have to shoulder most of the actual tax burden?
(a version of this article also appeared in Accountancy Daily, May 12th 2021)
- Published in News